Empire of the Summer Moon by S.C. Gwynne

The Big Idea: For most of the Old West times (1740s – 1870’s), Comanche tribes controlled the Southern Great Plains. The westward migration of settlers decimated their power and population.

The Comanches start off as a Shoshone linguistic group that migrate to the Great Plains.

The Pueblo tribe revolts against the Spanish colonists. They manage to obtain horses which they learned to use as transportation and as a main tool for everyday life.

Pre-Comanche groups move southwards because of the “pre ice-age” and also to follow the bison/food south.

Comanches raid a Spanish fort in present day New Mexico for horses.

The Comanches begin to trade with the French.

Comanches raided the Pecos Tribe and control of the land for 40 years.

Texas Congress provides 23,000 acres and establishes three Indian reservations on the upper Brazos River for the Texas tribes, Caddo, Cherokee, Delaware, Shawnee, Wichita, Tonkawa and the Comanches

In the Battle of the Adobe Plains, Comanches and other tribes battle the U.S. Army.

In the Second Battle of the Adobe Plains, the Cheyenne, Comanche, Kiowas, and Apaches battle against 24 American bison hunters.

By 1879, almost all the bison have been hunted to extinction by American bison hunters.

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