The Crusades by Thomas Asbridge

The Big Idea: From the 11th to the 15th century, popes and Christian nobles attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to take back Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims. The first crusades was the most successful, establishing, for a time, 4 Latin Christian kingdoms within the Holy Land.

Date Started
Date Ended
Key Battles
Primary Goal/Reason Started
Key People
First Crusade
1099Siege of Antioch, Siege of JerusalemReclaim the Holy Land from Muslim controlThe Crusaders captured Jerusalem and established several Christian states in the region, including the Kingdom of Jerusalem.Raymond of Toulouse, Godfrey of Bouillon, Bohemond of Taranto, Pope Urban II
Second Crusade11471149Battle of Dorylaeum, Siege of DamascusRespond to the fall of the County of EdessaThe Crusaders failed to recapture Edessa and suffered several defeats in battles against Muslim forces.King Louis VII of France, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III
Third Crusade11891192Battle of Arsuf, Siege of Acre, Battle of JaffaRetake Jerusalem from Muslim controlThe Crusaders failed to recapture Jerusalem but secured a truce with Muslim forces that allowed Christian access to the city.Richard the Lionheart, King Philip II of France, Saladin
Fourth Crusade12021204Siege of Zara, Siege of ConstantinopleReclaim the Holy Land by conquering the city of ConstantinopleThe Crusaders captured Constantinople and established a Latin Empire in the region, but did not achieve their original objective of reaching the Holy Land.Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice, Baldwin IX of Flanders
Children’s Crusade12121212N/AChildren and teenagers attempted to peacefully convert Muslims to Christianity and recapture the Holy LandThe crusade failed, and most of the participants were either killed, enslaved, or returned home.Stephen of Cloyes, Nicholas
Fifth Crusade12171221Battle of Damietta, Siege of CairoRecapture JerusalemThe Crusaders captured Damietta but were ultimately defeated and forced to sign a treaty that allowed Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem.King Andrew II of Hungary, Duke Leopold VI of Austria
Sixth Crusade12281229N/ARetake Jerusalem from Muslim control through diplomacy

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